Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Gender Expression

All children and youth have the right to be free from discrimination because of sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. This right is founded in Article 2 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, and provincial and territorial human rights legislation. Legislative protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation has been in place for some time. As of 2017, gender identity or gender expression has been explicitly codified in all human rights legislation at the provincial, territorial, and federal level.

The rights of children and youth with respect to sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression (SOGIE) apply to Canadian children and youth in a wide range of areas including (but not limited to) privacy, health care, sexual health education, identification documents, use of facilities, access to services, education (including gay-straight alliances, choice of companions at school events, and SOGIE inclusive curricula), employment, child protection, age of consent laws, youth justice and detention, and parental recognition. While relatively nascent, the application of SOGIE rights to children and youth is evolving rapidly and supplements other human rights protections to which they are entitled.

SOGIE rights are not currently well understood. The historical pathologizing of homosexuality and gender non-conformity, and widespread use of surgical interventions to “standardize” the genitalia without medical necessity and to erase the existence of intersex infants and children, continues to  influence attitudes about expression by children and youth as anything other-than heterosexual and cisgender. Lack of strong parental support for a child’s sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression has been associated with extremely negative outcomes, including shocking levels of homelessness or underhousing,  physical and mental health problems, fewer indicators of hopefulness for the future, and suicidal ideation and attempts. It is critical that judges, lawyers, and other professionals working with children and youth be alert to issues relating to sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression, and their impact on young people’s lives. (See Greta R. Bauer, Ayden I. Scheim, Jake Pyne, Robb Travers and Rebecca Hammond, Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada, BMC Public Health 2015, 15:525 doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1867-2.)

Special considerations


The words “sex” and “gender” are commonly used interchangeably to categorize people as female or male.

Sex refers to anatomical, genetic, hormonal, and other characteristics that play a role in reproductive or developmental processes, and used roughly as a classification system to identify people as male or female (or sometimes undetermined or intersex), usually assigned at birth.

Gender refers to the social classification of people as masculine or feminine, also usually assigned at birth but can include attribution based on behaviour and appearance. The Trans PULSE Project, a 2010 Ontario based study of the province’s trans population, found that the overwhelming majority of trans people knew their gender did not match the sex assigned to them at birth as children or youth (59% before the age of 10, 80% before the age of 14, and 93% before the age of 19).

However, the terminology related to sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression is far more complex, and significant for children and youth.

Gender identity is the inherent sense all people possess of being a woman, a man, something distinct from woman or man, or something in between. (See also definition of gender identity in the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity November 2017.)

Gender Expression is the expression of gender characteristics and behaviours that are socially understood as  to convey masculinity, femininity, or androgyny, and includes dress, grooming, mannerisms, speech patterns and social interactions.

Gender role is a culturally/societally prescribed social role (whether explicit or implicit) and set of expectations based on an individual's sex characteristics,  gender identity, or assignment gender expression.

Sexual orientation refers, generally, to the gender or gendered attributes that a person is attracted to, but has multiple dimensions. These include romantic attraction and emotional bonding and intimacy, a person’s sense of identity (e.g. gay, lesbian, bisexual, pansexual, or asexual) and an individual’s sense of community affiliation based on sexual orientation.

Cis (Cisgender/Cissexual) describes people who identify and experience their sex/gender (identity and expression) as congruent with the sex/gender assigned to them at birth.

Trans (Transgender/Transsexual) describes people who identify and experience their sex/gender, including gender identity and gender expression, as incongruent with the sex/gender assigned to them at birth.

Intersex/Differences in Sexual Development (DSD)  refers to people with a variety of conditions in which a person's reproductive or sexual anatomy develops as something other than typically male or female. While many people with intersex conditions identify as men or women, some may also identify as intersex or non-binary.

Non-Binary describes people whose experience of themselves falls outside of the binary gender categories - male/man or female/woman, including androgynous or agender. People with non-binary identities often use gender neutral pronouns, such as they/their, or titles such as Mx.

Two-Spirit refers to individuals gifted with both male and female spirits within some First Nations and reflects traditional conceptions of sex, gender, sexuality and traditional roles.  Two-Spirit people may also identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex  or with other identities.

Social Transition (Authenticity in Gender Expression) refers to steps taken to express one’s gender identity in a more authentic, congruent and comfortable way, and may include changes to name, pronoun use or dress.

Medical Transition is the process of altering primary or secondary sex characteristics, through hormone therapy or a variety of surgical procedures, to better align with an individual's gender identity, address distress, and improve social or sexual functionality.  (See N. Nicole Nussbaum, PowerPoint, Transgender Federal Prisoners: Canada’s Legal Framework, Canadian Bar Association, presented online, June 21, 2018.)

LGBTQQIP2SAA (a variation of LGBTQ used in this guide) is an umbrella term which stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, questioning, queer, intersex, pansexual, two-spirit (2S), androgynous and asexual, and encompasses some of the more common terms used to denote identity and community affiliation. 

SOGIE is another umbrella term, used in this guide to refer to sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression.

Issues commonly encountered

Children and youth encounter a myriad of legal and related social issues in connection with SOGIE-related discrimination, summarized below. It is important to note that SOGIE rights are not only significant to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and trans children and youth. For example, 10% of straight, cisgender high school students experience physical harassment and assault because of their gender expression (compared to 37% of trans students and 21% of non-trans LGBQ students; see Taylor, C. & Peter, T., with McMinn, T.L., Elliott, T., Beldom, S., Ferry, A., Gross, Z., Paquin, S., & Schachter, K., Every class in every school: Final report of the first national climate survey on homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia in Canadian schools. Toronto, ON: Egale Canada Human Rights Trust (2011).)

Issues commonly encountered include:

  • Physical, sexual and emotional harassment, cyberbullying and violence
  • Privacy concerns related to sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression
  • Barriers to obtaining identification documents reflecting gender identity
  • Denial of access to medical and sexual health information and care
  • Denial of access to facilities, services, programming, and social opportunities that accord with a child or youth’s gender identity or expression, including group homes and youth justice facilities, appropriate washroom, changeroom and locker room access, and access to supportive affiliations like gay-straight alliances
  • Denial of appropriate safety and dignity protection in the school context, including respect for chosen names and gender pronouns, and protection from harassment, bullying and violence (See Canadian Human Rights Commission, LGBTQ2I+ Rights: 36% of trans youth report being physically threatened or injured at school)
  • Erasure of representation and lack of positive role models in educational materials
  • Rejection and estrangement from family
  • Barriers to name and sex designation change, including obtaining parental consent
  • Parental disputes and litigation over support for children’s gender identity and gender expression
  • Social rejection and exclusion, including extremely high levels of homelessness (See Homeless Hub – Population Specific Resources – Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, queer population), also 2012 U.S. study Durso, L.E., & Gates, G.J., Serving Our Youth: Findings from a National Survey of Service Providers Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth who are Homeless or At Risk of Becoming Homeless. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute with True Colors Fund and The Palette Fund)
  • Discrimination and harassment in the shelter system
  • Criminalization of survival economies
  • Police harassment
  • Coerced efforts to change a child or youth’s sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression
  • Discriminatory age of consent law

The Law

International Law


Article 2: States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.

Article 3: In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.

Article 6: 2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.

The UNCRC also articulates the child’s right to free expression, freedom of thought and conscience, and to their own right to free association (Articles 13, 14, & 15).

It is important when considering the promotion of children’s rights, and in particular promotion of the rights articulated in the UNCRC, to note that these rights are inherent, interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Each one helps to inform and provide context for the other - they are to be read together.


The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child produces General Comments to assist rights promoters in developing a robust, nuanced, and well developed understanding and articulation of children’s rights. The General Comments provide important depth and context for statutory interpretation and contextual analysis of domestic legal rights. See the discussion in the UN Convention Rights of the Child section of this Toolkit.

General Comment No. 20 (2016) - on the implementation of the rights of the child during adolescence - identifies universally understood issues facing particular groups of young people who are subject to multiple vulnerabilities and rights violations.

33.  Adolescents who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex commonly face persecution, including abuse and violence, stigmatization, discrimination, bullying, exclusion from education and training, as well as a lack of family and social support, or access to sexual and reproductive health services and information. In extreme cases, they face sexual assault, rape and even death. These experiences have been linked to low self-esteem, higher rates of depression, suicide and homelessness.

34.  The Committee emphasizes the rights of all adolescents to freedom of expression and respect for their physical and psychological integrity, gender identity and emerging autonomy. It condemns the imposition of so-called “treatments” to try to change sexual orientation and forced surgeries or treatments on intersex adolescents. It urges States to eliminate such practices, repeal all laws criminalizing or otherwise discriminating against individuals on the basis of their sexual orientation, gender identity or intersex status and adopt laws prohibiting discrimination on those grounds. States should also take effective action to protect all lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex adolescents from all forms of violence, discrimination or bullying by raising public awareness and implementing safety and support measures.

Repeated references are made throughout this General Comment to LGBTQ young people and the need for special attention to protection and advancement of their rights. See also May 13, 2015 statement by the UNCRC, Discriminated and made vulnerable: Young LGBT and intersex people need recognition and protection of their rights.

General Comment No. 14 – Best interests of the child – identifies that a child’s sexual orientation is an important part of a child’s identity and will thus inform an understanding of what is in that child’s best interests.

General Comment No. 15 – Right to the highest attainable standard of health - recognizes the negative impact on children’s health that can result from discrimination, including discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

Resources on International Law

  1. Eliminating Discrimination Against Children and Parents Based on Sexual Orientation and/or Gender Identity, UNICEF 1 Nov 2014
  2. Eliminating forced, coercive and otherwise involuntary sterilization: an interagency statement, OHCHR, UN Women, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO (2014)
  3. Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (the applicability of the prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in international law to the unique experiences of women, girls, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons) A/HRC/31/57, January 5, 2016
  4. United Nations, Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner, Intersex Awareness Day – Wednesday 26 October 2016, End violence and harmful medical practices on intersex children and adults, UN and regional experts urge
  5. Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and Yogyakarta Principles plus 10 (YP+10), Additional Principles and State Obligations on the Application of International Human Rights Law in Relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics to Complement the Yogyakarta Principles
  6. United Nations, Free & Equal Campaign; UN Free & Equal Fact Sheet: International Human Rights Law And Sexual Orientation & Gender Identity

Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms provides for equality before and under the law and equal protection and benefit of the law irrespective of one’s race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. The courts have held that section 15 also protects equality on the basis of other characteristics that are not specifically set out in it, including sexual orientation. See Your Guide to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Section 15:Equality Rights, and also the discussion in The Charter and Constitutional Protection of Children section of this Toolkit.

Federal Legislation

The Canadian Human Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, marital status, family status, genetic characteristics, disability and conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered.

Canada’s Youth Criminal Justice Act expressly references the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and includes processes and a range of sentences to be imposed on young people 12-17 years of age to enhance their rights and protections. See the discussion in the Youth Criminal Justice section of this Toolkit.

The federal government’s Free to be Me page highlights resources and information on Canada’s efforts to advance sexual orientation and gender identity rights.

Provincial/Territorial Legislation

Many provinces and territories have laws which touch on aspects of a child or youth’s rights related to sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. Some examples are listed below (intended to be illustrative, not a comprehensive list). See also discussion in the Youth and Civil Justice section of this Toolkit.

Human Rights

All provincial and territorial (and federal) human rights legislation, as well as a number of municipal by-laws and policies, prohibit discrimination on the basis of age, sexual orientation, and gender identity and/or gender expression. A child’s rights related to sexual orientation and gender identity, as well as other prohibited grounds of discrimination such as race, creed, or sex, are not limited by age.

Health Care

LGBTQ children and youth have the same rights as other children and youth to have input into health care decisions affecting them and to have their views about medical decisions canvassed and considered even where the decision is not theirs alone. And all children and youth have the right to privacy regarding their health care and medical information. See the discussion in the Health section of this Toolkit.

Families are an important source of support for all children and youth, as are knowledgeable and supportive health professionals. The hard reality is that these supports are not always available for LGBTQ children and youth, who often face significant physical and mental health challenges due to their experiences of discrimination and social determinants of health.

Subject to applicable health care consent laws, trans adolescents have the right to make decisions regarding gender-related medical care, including puberty suppression, hormonal therapies, and surgical procedures.

Several jurisdictions have adopted laws that ban conversion therapy, that is practices that claim to be able to change a person’s sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression to make them heterosexual or cisgender. For example, health regulations in Manitoba ban the practice. In Ontario, the 2015 Affirming Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Act prohibits professionals from attempting conversion therapy with minors and prohibits public payment for these prohibited activities.  A Vancouver city by-law prohibits the business of providing conversion therapy to minors.

Parents of newborns and infants with differences of sexual development should be provided with information regarding medical necessity in advance of any proposed medical intervention. In keeping with UNCRC Article 24(3), medically unnecessary procedures should be deferred to protect the right to bodily integrity and allow the child to make informed medical decisions regarding their bodies. 


School environments should be respectful, inclusive and accepting, but LGBTQ students and those who are perceived to be LGBTQ, often experience bullying and harassment. Many school boards have attempted to address this issue through policies. For example, a Yukon Territory Education Policy requires all high schools to implement proactive strategies to welcome and include LGBTQ community members and their families. The Nova Scotia Department of Education and Early Childhood Development has developed Guidelines for Supporting Transgender and Gender-nonconforming Students (2014). Some jurisdictions have amended their School Acts to ensure students have the right to create and name Gay-Straight Alliances (for example, the Ontario Accepting Schools Act 2012) and have prohibited the school from informing parents when their child participates (see the Alberta School Act). 


Vital Statistics Acts establish systems to register births, adoptions, deaths, name changes, marriage and divorce, among other kinds of data, and provide the foundation for our primary identity documents, including passports and social insurance numbers. Some jurisdictions now explicitly provide for a youth to change their initial sex designation in these registration systems. For example, the Québec Civil Code permits an application for a change of sex designation for a minor child to be made by the minor alone if the minor is at least 14 years of age (or if under 14, for compelling reasons or with consents); see also Québec, Change of Sex Designation. The NWT Vital Statistics Act permits persons aged 16-18 who are living independently to change the sex designation on their birth certificate.

In Ontario, sex designation on a birth certificate can be male (M), female (F), or non-binary (X). Sex designation for a child 15 and under can be changed by application from the parent and, for a child 16 and older, by application from the child. See Ontario, Changing your Sex Designation.

Child Welfare

LGBTQ youth face unique risks in the child welfare system. In Ontario, the Child, Youth and Family Services Act. stipulates that the best interests, protection and well-being of children includes providing services to children and youth in a manner that considers their sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. Also, placement decisions by Children’s Aid and adoption decisions must expressly consider the child’s sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression, along with other relevant factors. The Ontario government has developed a resource guide which provides a comprehensive review of the issues and resources; see Serving LGBT2SQ Children and Youth in the Child Welfare System: A Resource Guide.

Key Cases

Saskatchewan (Human Rights Commission) v. Whatcott, [2013] 1 SCR 467
Speech that is likely to cause vilification of LGBT individuals is not protected on Charter grounds based on religious belief.

Chamberlain v. Surrey School District No. 36, [2002] 4 SCR 710
School board not entitled to exclude books that include LGBT topics from school curriculum because of potential objections of parents based on religious beliefs around sexual orientation.

P.T. v. Alberta, 2018 ABQB 496
Request dismissed for an injunction against Alberta legislation prohibiting a school from disclosing a child's participation in a Gay-Straight Alliance group to the child's parents (under appeal).

School District No.44 (North Vancouver) v. Jubran, 2005 BCCA 201
School board found to have failed in its duty to provide a discrimination-free environment, where the student experienced persistent bullying and harassment based on sexual orientation.

Saskatchewan Human Rights v Saskatchewan, 2018 SKQB 159
Lack of a process to change the sex designation of a minor found to violate section 12 of the Saskatchewan Human Rights Code.

C.F. v. Alberta (Vital Statistics), 2014 ABQB 237
Requiring anatomical sex structure be surgically changed to the opposite sex before changing sex designation on the birth certificate found to violate s. 15 Charter rights.

See also XY v. Ontario (Government and Consumer Services), 2012 HRTO 726

K.A.B. v. Ontario (Registrar General of Vital Statistics), 2013 ONCJ 684
Trans youth entitled to withdraw from parental control, and parental consent for name change not required.

Davies v. Murdock, 2017 ONSC 4763
Court accepted and relied on psychiatrist’s testimony stressing the importance of support for children’s gender identity and expression in custody dispute involving an 8-year-old gender non-conforming child.

See also Halton Children’s Aid Society v. G.K., 2015 ONCJ 307

Forrester v. Saliba, [2000] OJ No 3018 (QL)
Children and youth have the right to the guidance and a relationship with a LGBTQ parent to the extent it is in their best interests. A parent’s gender identity or expression does not constitute a material change in circumstances to vary custody or access arrangements.

Lovado v. BC (Ministry of Public Safety & Solicitor General), 2017 BCHRT 115
In denying application to dismiss a trans prisoner’s human rights complaint related to harassment and initial denial and delay in transferring her to a women’s corrrectional institution, Tribunal reviews Corrections process and considerations.

Forrester v. Peel (Regional Municipality) Police Services Board et al, 2006 HRTO 13
Challenge to police strip-search policy resulted in new policy offering choice of 2 male officers, 2 female officers, or a split search.

R. v. MacDonald, 2013 NSSC 255
Considerations for criminal sentencing included that the offender’s motive for committing the offence was to pay for medical transition procedures, that were subsequently funded by the province, and the possibility that the offender’s transgender identity could result in personal difficulties if placed in a correctional facility.

Dawson v. Vancouver Police Board (No. 2), 2015 BCHRT 54
Denial by police, after arrest of trans individual, of maintenance medical care necessary for her transition procedure found to be discriminatory. Police required to ensure respect for preferred name and pronouns and to develop policy to identify when use of detainee’s registered name would be justified.

Also, a number of human rights settlements are illustrative of the scope of children’s SOGIE rights. A settlement between trans youth and Hockey Canada resulted in policy supporting trans youths’ right to play on a team and use facilities based on youth’s gender identity; see A settlement with a school board resulted in policy to protect gender identity and expression rights in schools; see

Practice Essentials

  • Learn about sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression.
  • Canvass sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression issues when interviewing a child or youth client, along with other relevant background.
  • Recognize when a child or youth client is lacking family support for their sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression, and so is especially vulnerable.
  • Advise your client of the extent to which SOGIE information shared with you is confidential. Strategize with your client to identify what information, if any, to disclose and when. Ensure that you disclose information regarding sexual orientation, gender expression and gender identity only as your child or youth client instructs. Consider the implications of disclosure to unsupportive guardians and family members.
  • Ask your client about their preferred gender pronouns (and other terms) and use them when communicating with the child and when communicating with others.
  • For matters where SOGIE is relevant, take steps to ensure that any expert witnesses or clinical investigators are knowledgeable about sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. Seek out experts in sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression issues as necessary.
  • Assist trans child or youth client with name or sex designation change as necessary in their best interests to protect their safety, rights and privacy.
  • Family Law:
    • Request that independent legal representation be provided for a child or youth (with their consent) if the parents are not supportive or differ in their support for the child’s sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. In jurisdictions where there is a formal process for appointing independent legal representation, request that the referring Order highlight the need for the lawyer or clinical investigator to be familiar with SOGIE issues.
    • A parent’s gender identity or expression does not constitute a material change in circumstances to vary custody or access arrangements. Children and youth have the right to the guidance of and a relationship with a LGBTQ parent to the extent it is in their best interests and in consideration of their views which must be canvassed.
    • Consider entitlement to child support in the child’s name or paid directly to the child where the child experiences family rejection.
  • Child protection: Consider your child or youth client’s sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression, and ensure that their child protection placement will be safe and supportive.
  • Youth Justice:
    • Canvass impact of child or youth’s sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression on all issues before the court, and at every stage of the proceeding.
    • Ensure that the court is aware of the child or youth’s sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression in a manner consistent with the young person’s instructions.
    • Always advocate for non-custodial placement (at bail, and on sentence). If custody is unavoidable, advocate an open-custody placement in accordance with child or youth’s gender identity or preferences regarding placement (reflecting child or youth’s feelings about where they will be safest, best supported, and have access to LGBTQ inclusive supports and programming).
  • Be mindful of how multiple legal issues may increase the vulnerability of your client, and where overlapping areas of law may assist you in advocating for your client – e.g. human rights, education, child protection, family law. Consistently use the UNCRC as an interpretive tool in any legal context, and advocate for the child’s self-identified needs and concerns as an important aspect of the best interests of the child.


  1. Ensuring Comprehensive Care and Support for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Children and Adolescents, Pediatrics, October 2018, VOLUME 142 / ISSUE 4, From the American Academy of Pediatrics, Policy Statement.
  2. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), Policy Statement, Genital Surgeries in Intersex Children, (July 2018).
  3. Taylor, C. & Peter, T., with McMinn, T.L., Elliott, T., Belldom, S., Ferry, A., Gross, Z., Paquin, S., & Schachter, K. (2011). Every class in every school: The first national climate survey on homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia in Canadian schools. Final report. Toronto, ON: Eagle Canada Human Rights Trust.
  4. Veale J, Saucy E, Frohard-Dourlent H, Dobson S, Clark B & the Canadian Trans Youth Health Survey Research Group (2015). Being Safe, Being Me: Results of the Canadian Trans Youth Health Survey. Vancouver, BC: Stigma and Resilience Among Vulnerable Youth Centre, School of Nursing, University of British Columbia.
  5. Travers R, Bauer G, Pyne J, Bradley K, for the Trans PULSE Project; Gale L, Papadimitriou M. Impacts of Strong Parental Support for Trans Youth: A Report Prepared for Children’s Aid Society of Toronto and Delisle Youth Services. 2 October, 2012.
  6. Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment de Vries AL, McGuire JK, Steensma TD, Wagenaar EC, Doreleijers TA, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):696-704
  7. Enacted Stigma, Mental Health, and Protective Factors Among Transgender Youth in Canada, Veale Jaimie F., Peter Tracey, Travers Robb, and Saewyc Elizabeth
  8. Family Acceptance Project, San Francisco State University
  9. Julia Temple Newhook, Jake Pyne, Kelley Winters, Stephen Feder, Cindy Holmes, Jemma Tosh, Mari-Lynne Sinnott, Ally Jamieson & Sarah Pickett (2018), A critical commentary on follow-up studies and “desistance” theories about transgender and gender-nonconforming children, International Journal of Transgenderism, 19:2, 212-224, DOI:
  10. Today’s Transgender Youth: Health, Well-being, and Opportunities for ResilienceVolume 19, 2018, Issue 2, International Journal of Transgenderism
  11. Affirmative Mental Health Care for Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth: A Clinical Guide, Editors: Janssen, Aron, Leibowitz, Scott (Eds.), 2018, Springer International Publishing.
  12. The Gender Creative Child (Book)
  13. 2 Spirited People of the 1st Nations
  14. Two-Spirited People of Manitoba Inc.
  15. Supporting Our Youth
  16. Trans Family Law Project
  17. Trans Youth Can, Study of youth referred for puberty blockers or hormones at ten clinics in Canada
  18. Homeless Hub – Population Specific Resources – Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, queer population
  19. Children’s Aid Society of Toronto, Out and Proud Affirmation Guidelines
  20. Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services, Policy on admission, classification and placement of trans inmates
  21. Ontario Human Rights Commission, Policy on Preventing discrimination and harassment because of gender identity and gender expression
  22. Joint Statement on the Affirmation of Gender Diverse Children and Youth, Canadian Association for Social Work Education (CASWE-ACFTS) and the Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW)
  23. Trans Rights B.C.
  24. Vancouver School Board Policy on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
  25. Alberta Ministry of Education, Guidelines for Best Practices: Creating Learning Environments that Respect Diverse Sexual Orientations, Gender Identities and Gender Expressions
  26. Ending Conversion Therapy: Supporting and Affirming LGBTQ Youth. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4928. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015.
  27. Sex redefined, Nature 518, 288–291, (19 February 2015)
  28. LGBTQ Parenting Network
  29. Canadian Professional Association for Transgender Health
  30. Egale Canada Human Rights Trust
  31. My GSA (Gay Straight Alliance)
  32. The Canadian Centre for Gender & Sexual Diversity
  33. Transforming Justice: Trans Legal Needs Assessment Ontario
  34. Open Society Foundations, License To Be Yourself: Trans Children and Youth, A Legal Gender Recognition Issue Brief
  35. Strengthening Support to LGBTIQ Adolescents. Plan UK and Plan Sweden
  36. Justice for Children & Youth, Legal rights wiki - Discrimination and LGBTQI2S rights "in Ontario"
  37. Justice for Children & Youth, Guide to LGBTQI2S Legal Rights